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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 58-61

Tuberculosis presenting as immune thrombocytopenia

Department of General Medicine, Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad, Telangana, India

Correspondence Address:
M Nageshwar Rao
Professor and Head, Department of General Medicine, Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences, Panjagutta, Hyderabad 500 082, Telangana
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jcsr.jcsr_71_21

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A 19-year-old male presented with chief complaints of generalised weakness and unintentional weight loss from 50 Kg to 45 Kg within a span of 1 month. He complained of fever for 15 days and had developed petechiae over bilateral upper limbs and bilateral subconjunctival haemorrhage. Laboratory investigations done elsewhere showed platelet count of 10,000/mm3. On further investigation, Widal test, dengue serology, and smear examination for malarial parasite, antinuclear antibodies, and viral markers were negative. Abdominal ultrasonography showed multiple conglomerative enlarged lymph nodes in peripancreatic, peripatetic and paracaval, with few of them showing necrosis and loss of hilum and minimal ascites. Bone marrow examination showed megakaryocytic hyperplasia features, suggestive of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). No improvement in the platelet count was noted with intravenous methylprednisolone. On examination, the patient had ecchymotic patches over bilateral upper limbs and bilateral subconjunctival haemorrhages. Bilateral supraclavicular lymph nodes were palpable, non-tender, mobile, measuring 3 cm × 3 cm in the right side and 2 cm × 2 cm in the left side and firm in consistency. Cervical lymph node biopsy showed caseous necrotising granulomatous inflammation. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography neck, chest and abdomen showed multiple enlarged conglomerated heterogeneous enhancing lymph nodes with central non-enhancing areas s/o necrosis noted in the neck, mediastinum and abdomen. Tuberculin skin test (Mantoux test) revealed induration of 20 mm. The patient was started on eltrombopag, and four doses of intravenous immunoglobulin were given without improvement. The patient was started on liver-friendly anti-tuberculosis treatment in view of deranged liver function tests with isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and levofloxacin and later pyrazinamide was added. The platelet count increased after 1 month of ATT to 40,000, and after 2 months, the count was 100,000/mm3.

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