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Table of Contents
BRIEF COMMUNICATION
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 197-199

Ensuring safe blood supply: A 2-year retrospective study on seropositivity of transfusion-transmitted infections among blood donors


Department of Blood Bank, Sparsh Multi Specialty Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Date of Submission15-Nov-2021
Date of Decision28-Jan-2022
Date of Acceptance30-Jan-2022
Date of Web Publication08-Jun-2022

Correspondence Address:
P M Bala Bhasker
Department of Blood Bank, Sparsh Multi Specialty Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jcsr.jcsr_64_21

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  Abstract 


Background: The use of unscreened blood exposes the patient to many transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs) including hepatitis B and C viruses, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), malaria and syphilis, among others. Thus, blood transfusion demands for meticulous pre-transfusion testing and screening.
Methods: In this retrospective study carried out from September 2019 to September 2021, 5 mandatory screening tests for TTIs, namely, anti-HIV 1 and 2, anti-hepatitis C virus antibodies, hepatitis surface antigen (HBsAg), serological testing for syphilis and malarial parasite antigen detection were performed.
Results: From 2019 September to 2021 September, 2576 blood donations (n = 2474; 96% males) were studied. Of these, 529 (20.5%) were from voluntary donors (VD) and 2047 (79.5%) from replacement donors (RD). Thirty-four (1.3%) of the total 2576 blood donors tested positive for one of the TTIs, including 6 (17.6%) VD and 28 (82.4%) RD.
Conclusions: Strict selection of blood donors is mandatory and the need to increase voluntary blood donations can ensure safe blood supply and reducing the occurrence of TTI.

Keywords: Pre-transfusion testing, safe blood supply, transfusion transmitted infections


How to cite this article:
Bala Bhasker P M, Williams S. Ensuring safe blood supply: A 2-year retrospective study on seropositivity of transfusion-transmitted infections among blood donors. J Clin Sci Res 2022;11:197-9

How to cite this URL:
Bala Bhasker P M, Williams S. Ensuring safe blood supply: A 2-year retrospective study on seropositivity of transfusion-transmitted infections among blood donors. J Clin Sci Res [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Aug 12];11:197-9. Available from: https://www.jcsr.co.in/text.asp?2022/11/3/197/347044




  Introduction Top


The use of unscreened blood exposes the patient to a variety of transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs), including hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), malaria and syphilis.[1] As a result, blood transfusion necessitates thorough pre-transfusion testing and screening. All blood donations in India are required to be checked for HIV 1 and 2, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), HCV, syphilis and malaria under the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1945, as modified from time to time.[1],[2] Donors who test positive for HIV, HBV, HCV, and Syphilis are permanently barred from donating blood, while those who test positive for malaria are barred from donating blood for 3 months following complete recovery.[2] If a blood unit is found to be sero-reactive to any of these five obligatory tests, it must be discarded with bio-safety precautions and not used in transfusion.[3] Blood Transfusion Service's top priority is to maintain a constant supply of safe, adequate, and efficient blood. Analysis of transfusion-transmitted infections is necessary for blood bank services to take appropriate precautions. As a result, the goal of this study was to examine TTI seroprevalence among blood donors at our blood bank over a 2-year period to take action to ensure a safe blood supply.


  Material Methods Top


From September 2019 to September 2021, this retrospective study was conducted at the Department of Transfusion Medicine at Sparsh Hospital in Yeshwantpur, Bengaluru, Karnataka state. All registered blood donors were asked to complete a donor screening, registration, and permission form that followed national norms. The blood donors came from both rural and urban locations in and around Bangalore, and the vast majority of them were literate. On a 5 mL clotted sample in the pilot tube from post-donation samples, five obligatory TTIs screening tests for anti-HIV 1 and 2, anti-HCV, HBsAg, ayphilis and malarial parasite antigen were done. Blood donors who tested positive for HIV, HBsAg, HCV and syphilis using automated chemiluminescence technology (Vitros ECiQ Immunodiagnostic assay System) were retested using a blood bag sample. Donor samples that tested positive using both procedures are deemed confirmed reactive. The blood bags collected from donors who were reactive to any single technique of testing, on the other hand, were autoclaved and discarded.


  Results Top


From September 2019 to September 2021, a total of 2576 blood donations were examined at the Sparsh hospital blood bank in Yeshwantpur. Of these, 529 (20.5%) were from voluntary donors (VD) and 2047 (79.5%) were from replacement donors (RD). Male donors made up 96.0% of the total. Thirty-four (1.3%) of the total 2576 blood donors (all males) tested positive for one of the TTIs, including 6 (17.6%) VD and 28 (82.4%) RD. All 34-blood bags were autoclaved with bio-safety precautions in place before being disposed. The donor characteristics, distribution of type of blood donors and their seropositivity are shown in [Table 1]. Distribution of seropositivity among VD and RD is depicted in [Figure 1].{Table 1}{Figure 1}


  Discussion Top


To prevent TTIs, this study underlines the need of testing blood units obtained in blood banks for TTIs and destroying them by autoclaving. The rate of all five necessary TTIs markers was 1.3% over the study period. Other Indian studies had reported similar TTI positive rates (0.87%, 0.91%, 1.41%, and 1.35%), respectively.[4],[5],[6],[7] To limit the amount of blood withheld from transfusion following collection and screening, stringent adherence to preliminary blood donor selection criteria should be implemented.

The majority of the donors in our study were RD, with a male preponderance. RD had a higher positivity rate for TTIs than VD in all TTI screening tests. Non-remunerated and repeat voluntary blood donor services are desperately required and should be encouraged, according to these findings.

All blood units should be screened for compatibility and TTIs, and implementing tight donor selection criteria, using sensitive screening tests and establishing strict blood transfusion standards, as well as reducing needless blood transfusions can reduce the occurrence of TTIs. Blood donors must be carefully chosen, and the need for blood must be met. To ensure a secure blood supply and reduce the occurrence of TTI, voluntary blood donations are advised.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
World Health Organization. Blood Transfusion Safety. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2012.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Malik V. Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 and Rules 1945 there in Amended up to the 31st December, 2016. India: Eastern Book Company; 2016.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
National AIDS Control Organization. An action plan for blood safety. New Delhi: National AIDS Control Organisation, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India; 2003.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Agarwal N. Response rate of blood donors in the Uttarakhand region of India after notification of reactive test results on their blood samples. Blood Transfus 2014;12 Suppl 1:s51-3.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Tiwari AK, Bhardwaj G, Dara RC, Arora D, Aggarwal G, Bhargava R, et al. Notification and counselling of hepatitis positive blood donors, their immediate emotional response, contact-testing and their follow-up: Study from a tertiary care hospital! Transfus Apher Sci 2018;57:391-7.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Patel SG, Patel JN, Patel AC, Raja KA, Dobariya GH, Pandya AN. Blood donor notification and counseling of reactive test result in blood bank of south Gujarat: A better approach to prevent reactive donors from donating blood again. Glob J Transfus Med 2016;1:57.  Back to cited text no. 6
  [Full text]  
7.
Leena MS, Mohd S. Trend and prevalence of transfusion transmitted infections among blood donors in rural teaching institute, South India. J Pathol Nepal 2012;2:203-6.  Back to cited text no. 7
    




 

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